Biological LOA

 

 

 

 

1 and 2. Outline and explain principles that define the biological level of analysis

1.     Patterns of behaviour can be inherited

2.     Animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour

3.     Cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems

3. Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis (for example, experiments, observations, correlational studies).

Experiment – Lashely, Freider - Caffeine slows pup learning, LoBue – a snake in the grass

Correlational studies - De Bellis - Alcohol and prefrontal cortex studyBouchard – Twin studies

Case Studies – Harlow - Phineas GageBroca - Tan, Milner and/or Corkin - H.M.

4. Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis.

Correlational studies such as DeBellis - Alcohol and prefrontal cortex, and Bouchard – Minnesota Twin Studies, are often used because it would be unethical to do an experiment to answer these research questions.

Use of animals.  Is Karl Lashley’s work unethical?

 

5. Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain (for example, Wernicke, Broca,Gazzaniga and Sperry).

Harlow - Phineas Gage

Broca – Tan

Milner and/or Corkin - H.M.

Clive Wearing

Lashley (1950) - Search of the Engram

Dr. Hans Breiter - Injects woman with cocaine, Uses FMRI (Found in Hijacked Brain)

Dr. George Koob - Found where dopamine is released in rat's brain (Found in Hijacked Brain)

Dr. AnnaRose Childress - Uses videos of drug use and PET Scans to study craving. (Found in Hijacked Brain)

 

6. Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour (for example, the effect of noradrenaline on depression)

Dr. George Koob - Found where dopamine is released in rat's brain (Found in Hijacked Brain)

Caspi - Influence of Stress on Depression

 

7. Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour.

Sapolsky – Why zebras don’t get ulcers – Chap 10

Robert Sapolsky discusses physiological effects of stress

Selye - General Adaptation Syndrome

Lazarus - Puzzles of Daily Hassles

Cannon - Fight or Flight

 

8. Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes

Rosenzwieg - More experience = Bigger brain

De Bellis - Alcohol and prefrontal cortex study

Selye - General Adaptation Syndrome

Lazarus - Puzzles of Daily Hassles

Cannon - Fight or Flight

Klinesmith - guns, testosterone and aggression

 

9. Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour (for example, agnosia, anosognosia, prosapagnosia, amnesia). Evaluate two relevant studies.

Selye - General Adaptation Syndrome

Lazarus - Puzzles of Daily Hassles

Cannon - Fight or Flight

 

10. Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT, PET, fMRI) in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behaviour.

Hans Breiter – Injected woman with Cocaine and observed using fMRI (Found in Hijacked Brain)

AnnaRose Childress – Experimented with cravings and observed with PET scan (Found in Hijacked Brain)

Bremner – MRI & PET in PTSD

Maguire - Recalling Routes around London

 

11. With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour?

Bouchard - Genes Enviroment and Personality

Bouchard – Twin studies

Minnesota twin studies - research and results

Kendler - Twin Study on Depression

Shuckit - genetic markers in alcoholism (Found in Hijacked Brain)

 

12. Examine one evolutionary explanation of behaviour.

LoBue - Snake in the grass

Cook and Minenka

Ohman and Mineka



Hijacked Brain - Click here for the website

Introduction: Addiction as a Disease

Animations: How Drugs Work

Dr. George Koob - Found where dopamine is released in rat's brain

Dr. AnnaRose Childress - Uses videos of drug use and PET Scans to study craving.
Click on the right to read her short articles. There are video clips also.

Dr. Mark Shuckit - Tolerance and susceptibility to alcoholism.
Dr. Mark Shuckit - Adoption studies. 4x increase in offspring of alcoholics

Dr. Hans Breiter - Injects woman with cocaine, Uses FMRI

Psychsims - Click on the one that says "All Stressed Out"

Mouse Party !

 

 PowerPoints


Parts of the Brain PowerPoint